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Radiation Safety Training Module
Radiation Safety Training
Study Guide
ISU Technical Safety Office, Campus Box 8106
Pocatello, ID 83209
(208) 282-2311/2310

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radionuclide data

Low-energy beta or electron emitters with negligible external exposure potential.

Nuclide Half Life Reference Quantity (μCi) Ingestion ALI (mCi)
H-3 12 years 1,000 80
C-14 5,730 years 100 2
S-35 87 days 100 6
Cl-36 3x105 years 10 2
 
 
High-energy beta emitters with negligible gamma emission but capable of significant bremsstrahlung(1) production if not properly shielded.  Emphasis is on control of doses to extremities and prevention of intake.
 
Nuclide Half Life Reference Quantity (μCi) Ingestion ALI (mCi)
P-32 14.3 days 10 0.6
Sr-Y-90 29.12 years 0.1 0.03
 
 
Radioiodines are treated as a separate category for exposure evaluation.  Emphasis is on prevention of intake by ingestion or inhalation.
 
Nuclide Half Life Reference Quantity (μCi) Ingestion ALI (mCi)
I-125 60 days 1 0.04
I-129 1.57x107 years 1 0.005
I-131 8 days 1 0.03
 
 
Noble gases present minimal exposure potential or waste disposal problems.
 
Nuclide Half Life Reference Quantity (μCi) Ingestion ALI (mCi)
Kr-85 10.7 years 1,000 N/A
Xe-133 5.2 days 1,000 N/A
 
 
Naturally occurring radionuclides are primarily alpha emitters. Emphasis is on prevention of intake by ingestion or inhalation.
 
Nuclide Half Life Reference Quantity (μCi) Ingestion ALI (mCi)
Th-232 1.4x1010 years 100 0.0007
U-238 4.5x109 years 100 0.02
 
 
Radionuclides which emit gamma rays of substantial energy and with ALI greater than or equal to 1 millicurie; emphasis is on external exposure control and monitoring.

 
Nuclide Half Life Reference Quantity (μCi) Ingestion ALI (mCi)
Na-24 15 hours 100 4
Mn-54 312 days 100 2
Mo-99 2.8 days 100 1
Tc-99m 6 hours 1,000 80
Au-198 2.7 days 100 1
 
 
ALL OTHER RADIONUCLIDES
not included in one of the above groups are assumed to have potentials for both external and internal exposures and must be evaluated individually.

 
Nuclide Half Life Reference Quantity (μCi) Ingestion ALI (mCi)
Na-22 2.6 years 10 0.4
Co-60 5.27 years 1 0.2
Zn-65 244 days 10 0.4
Ir-192 74 days 1 0.9
Hg-203 47 days 100 0.5


(1) Bremsstrahlung radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted by swiftly moving charged particles as they de-accelerate.

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