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Infectious Waste Policies and Procedures Manual
Idaho State University (HTML version) 2002 Edition

Chapter 5 - CDC Guidelines for Pathogenic Organisms

    Compliance suggestions proposed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) as they pertain to Idaho State University are outlined in this section.  These CDC suggestions specifically address the safety and security recommendations for particular pathogenic organisms, but are not federal, state, or local code.

5.1 Bio-safety Levels
    The following table is a classification system proposed by CDC (Centers for Disease Control) for levels of precautionary measures and security levels for pathologic agents; BSL refers to Bio-safety Level.  This table is from in CDC’s Bio-safety in Microbiological and Bio-medical Laboratories (BMBL) 4th edition (section III).
 
 

BSL
Agents
Practices
Safety Equipment
Primary Barriers
Facilities (Secondary Barriers)
1 Not known to consistently cause disease in healthy human adults. Standard animal care and management practices, including appropriate medical surveillance programs. As required for normal care of each species. Standard animal facility
No recirculation of exhaust air
Directional air flow recommended
Handwashing sink recommended
2 Associated with human disease.  Hazard: percutaneous exposure, ingestion, mucous membrane exposure. ABSL-1 practices plus:
Limited access
Biohazard warning signs
Sharps precautions
Biosafety manual
Decontamination of all infectious wastes and of animal cases prior to washing
ABSL-1 equipment plus primary barriers: containment equipment appropriate for animal species; PPE: laboratory coats, gloves, face and respiratory protection as needed. ABSL-1 facility plus:
Autoclave available
Handwashing sink available in the animal room
Mechanical cage washer used
3 Indigenous or exotic agents with potential for aerosol transmission; disease may have serious health effects. ABSL-2 practices plus:
Controlled access
Decontamination of clothing before laundering
Cages decontaminated before bedding removed
Disinfectant foot bath as needed
ABSL-2 equipment plus:
Containment equipment for housing animals and cage dumping activities
Class I or II BSCs available for manipulative procedures (inoculation, necropsy) that may create infectious aerosols.
PPE: appropriate respiratory protection
ABSL-2 facility plus:
Physiccal seperation from access corridors
Self-closing, double-door access
Sealed penetrations
Sealed windows
Autoclave available in facility
4 Dangerous/exotic agents that pose high risk of life threatening disease; aerosol transmission, or related agents with unknown risk of transmission. ABSL-3 practices plus:
Entrance through change room where personal clothing is removed and laboratory clothing is put on; shower on exiting
All wastes are decontaminated before removal from the facility
ABSL-3 equipment plus:
Maximum containment equipment (i.e. Class III BSC or partial containment equipments in combination with full body, air-supplied positive pressure personnel suit) used for all procedures and activities
ABSL-3 facility plus:
Seperate building or isolated zone
Dedicated suplly and exhaust, vacuum and decontamination systems
Other requirments outlined in the text

5.2 Pathogenic Bacterial Agents
    The following is a categorization of pathogenic bacterial organisms by their recommended bio-safety level.  With exceptions, all of the following are bio-safety level 2 for activities using clinical materials and diagnostic quantities of the organism.
 
 

Name of Bacterial Organism  Exception
Bacillus anthracis BSL – 3 for production quantities or concentrations of cultures, and for activities with a high potential for aerosol production.
Bordetella pertussis BSL – 3 for large-scale production operations.
Brucella abortus, B. canis, B. melitensis, B. suis BSL –3 for all manipulations of cultures.
Burkholderia pseudomallei  BSL – 3 for production quantities or concentrations, or activities with a high potential for aerosol production.
Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus  N/A
Chlamydia psittaci, C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis BSL – 3 for production quantities or concentrations, or activities with a high potential for aerosol production.
Clostridium botulinum BSL – 3 for production quantities of toxin, or activities with a high potential for aerosol production.
Clostridium tetani  N/A
Corynebacterium diphtheria  N/A
Escherichia coli N/A
Francisella tularensis  BSL –3 for all manipulations of cultures and experimental animal studies.
Helicobacter pylori  N/A
Leptospira interrogans  N/A
Listeria monocytogenes  N/A
Legionella pneumophila BSL – 3 for production quantities of toxin, or activities with a high potential for aerosol production.
Mycobacterium leprae N/A
Mycobacterium spp. except M. leprae, tuberculosis, and bovis  N/A
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis  BSL – 3 for propagation and manipulation of cultures
Neisseria gonorrhoeae  BSL –3 for production quantities or concentrations, or activities with a high potential for aerosol production. 
Neisseria meningitides  BSL – 3 for production quantities or concentrations, or activities with a high potential for aerosol production.
Salmonella spp. except S. typhi N/A
Salmonella typhi  BSL – 3 for production quantities or concentrations, or activities with a high potential for aerosol production.
Shigella spp.  N/A
Treponema pallidum N/A
Vibrio cholera, V. para-haemolyticus N/A
Yersinia pestis  BSL – 3 for production quantities or concentrations, or activities with a high potential for aerosol production.

5.3  Pathogenic Fungal Agents
    The following table is a categorization of pathogenic fungal organisms by their recommended bio-safety level.  With exceptions, all of the following are bio-safety level 2 for activities using clinical materials and diagnostic quantities of the organism.
 
 

Name of Fungal Organism  Exceptions
Blastomyces dermatitidis  N/A
Coccidioides immitis  BSL – 3 for propagating and manipulating sporulating cultures, or processing environmental materials (soil) suspected to contain the fungi.
Cryptococcus neoformans  N/A
Histoplasma capsulatum  BSL – 3 for propagating and manipulating cultures, or processing environmental materials (soil) suspected to contain the fungi.
Sporothrix schenckii N/A
Pathogenic members of the genera: Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Trichophyton  N/A
Misc. molds: Penicillium marneffei, Exophiala dermatitidis, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Ochroconis gallopavum, Claduphialopora bantians, Ramichlorisium machenzieim  N/A

5.4  Pathogenic Viral Agents
    The viral agents mentioned by the Centers for Disease Control are not relevant for the minimal viral use at I.S.U.  Further information about CDC regulations pertaining to pathogenic viral agents can be found in CDC’s Bio-safety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) 4th edition at: http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl4/bmbl4s7f.htm

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Idaho State University
Campus Box 8106
785 S. 8th St. PS Rm 101 
Pocatello, ID 83209
Phone: (208) 282-2310 or 282-2311
Fax: (208) 282-4649