Energy Losses In High Current-Density Conductors
Rick B. Spielman
Idaho Accelerator Center

Today the Sandia National Laboratories' Z Machine routinely delivers total currents in excess of 25 MA reaching current densities > 10 MA/cm. Future defense applications will require currents delivered to compact loads that exceed 50 MA.  Losses in conductors are becoming important. Ohmic heating, shock & PdV heating, current diffusion, and material motion will create unavoidable losses. Calculations suggest measurable conductor losses in stainless steel on Z and significant conductor losses at current densities above 20 MA/cm. Even high-density materials such as tungsten will have significant conductor losses at current densities above 20 MA/cm. We describe the loss mechanisms and partial mitigation approaches.